Ciung Wanara
and The History of Galuh Kingdom - part 2

Ciung Wanara was indisputably a legend. He was a crown prince before his father was murdered. The history revealed his endeavor to avenge his father death and ascend the throne. Part 1 of this article was about Galuh kingdom and its heirs. 

Here in part 2, we continue the history with:

You also can read the legend of Ciung Wanara here. 


To better understand this part 2 of the history of Ciung Wanara, I recommend you to read part 1 of the history first.

There is also a retold of the legend, which was based on the Pantun Sunda. 

They will all be intertwine, so in some parts there are some comparisons between the legend and the history. Hence, you'd better read them all :)

Ciung Wanara became the king of Galuh kingdom

One day, when King Permana Di Kusuma was meditating, Barmawijaya had him murdered, because he wanted to wed Nyimas Dewi Pengrenyep, who already gave him a son named Hariang Banga. Then he married both queens and appointed himself as the king. Since then Nyimas Dewi Naganingrum and Ciung Wanara continued to live inside the palace.

When King Sanjaya, the king of Sunda kingdom and the father of Tamperan Barmawijaya, inherited Mataram kingdom, he gave Sunda to Tamperan Barmawijaya. So, during Barmawijaya’s reign Sunda and Galuh was united.

On the contrary to the legend, Ciung Wanara and his mother were not exiled. But aki and nini Balagantrang who was mentioned as the adoptive parents of Ciung Wanara were actually the grandparents of Nyimas Dewi Naganingrum. Balagantrang lived in Geger Sunten village preparing an army to avenge Permana Di Kusuma death.

Upon careful preparation done by Ciung Wanara and Balagantrang, they attacked Galuh kingdom  at noon, during the rooster fight gathering. They succeeded in capturing Tamperan Barmawijaya, Dewi Pengrenyep and Hariang Banga inside the arena. But, Ciung Wanara decided to release Banga, since he’s not guilty of murdering his father.

However, Banga returned to the arena to release his parents. Unfortunately, they were killed during the chaos. 

The last battle was between Ciung Wanara and Banga, both were descendants of Wretikandayun, the first king of Galuh. The battle was grueling. At last, the elder of the royal family, Demunawan, which was the grandson of Wretikandayun [instead of the late king Permana Di Kusuma as per the legend] offered resolution to Ciung Wanara and Banga: to split Sunda Galuh kingdom into two, Ciung Wanara became the king of Galuh and Banga became the king of Sunda. Both kings would wed the two granddaughters of Demunawan to keep peace between them.

At the end of the legend, it was always mentioned that Ciung Wanara and Banga called a truce at Pamali river. Then Ciung Wanara went to the west and became the king in Galuh, while Banga went to the east and later on known as Jaka Sesuruh a.k.a. Raden Wijaya, the founder of Majapahit kingdom. This part of the legend was the biggest blunder to the history. It because in reality Banga was born in 723AD and died in 766AD, while Majapahit was founded on 1293AD by Raden Wijaya, which was 527 years after Banga passed away. 

Anyway, since Tamperan Barmawijaya was the king of Sunda and Galuh kingdom, it was true that Ciung Wanara got half of the kingdom, which was Galuh kingdom, and Banga got the other half, which was Sunda kingdom. 

The reign of Ciung Wanara as the king of Galuh kingdom [739-783]

In 739 Ciung Wanara ascended the throne as Prabu Suratama a.k.a. Prabu Jayaprakosa Mandaleswara Salakabuwana. He stepped down in 783 and became a hermit until he passed away at the age of 80.

Since he only had one daughter named Purbasari, he passed on the throne to his son in law, Guruminda Sang Minisri. But, if you read the legend or listen to the bard narrating the story, it is not that simple. The story of this couple was told in the legend of Lutung Kasarung.


Lutung Kasarung

It began with the search of the dream girl, so Guruminda Sang Minisri was disguised as a Lutung. When he finally found her, he helped her, he fought for her, to reach their happy ending.

You can read the whole story of Lutung Kasarung here ...

The Sundanese is not only rich with histories, but it also has many breathtaking places to be explored: cities, cultures, craters, beaches and many more. Let's explore them all!

Candi Cangkuang, Garut.
Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta.
Kawah Putih [White Crater] in Ciwidey, Bandung.
Dutch Cave/Bunker at Tahura Juanda, Bandung.

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